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Fruits contain a concentrated amount of natural components. These natural components are plant-derived materials that play an important role in maintaining human health, particularly in disease prevention, growth, and development. Phytonutrients, particularly those derived from fruits and vegetables, have recently gained popularity as a result of consumer awareness of their health-promoting potential.

Watermelon is classified as a fruit by the botanical family Cucurbitaceae.
The Cucurbitaceae family has the highest number and percentage of species used as human food for any plant family.
Watermelon is now widely grown in tropical areas all over the world. It is economically significant, with a global production of 29.6 million tonnes estimated.

Cultivation of Watermelon
Watermelons are grown in sandy loam soil that is rich in organic matter and has good drainage.
Watermelon is a warm-season crop that is primarily grown in subtropical and hot-arid climates. A temperature range of 24-270C is considered ideal for vine growth. Cool nights and warm days are ideal for sugar accumulation in the fruits. Temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius are ideal for seed germination. High humidity during vegetative growth makes the crop susceptible to a variety of fungal diseases.

-Planting and transplanting: Watermelons can be direct seeded in the field or grown as transplant seedlings in pots before transplanting to the field. Seeds are soaked in warm water for 12 hours before planting.

-Weed and insect control: Depending on the season, 2-3 weeding operations are required. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after sowing, and subsequent weeding should be done once a month. The most serious watermelon pest is leaf-eating beetles, which destroy the flowers. The other major issue with growing watermelons is mildew, a fungus that causes the leaves to appear coated in white powder.

-Harvesting and storing: The crop is ready to harvest 75-100 days after planting. Harvesting should be done at full maturity for local markets, but slightly earlier for transporting to distant markets. Watermelons can be stored at 15°C for 14 days. Watermelons should not be stored with apples or bananas because the ethylene produced by these fruits accelerates softening and the development of off-flavors in watermelons.

-Nutritional Value of Fresh Watermelon: Watermelon is a popular fruit in many parts of the world. Watermelon is composed of more than 91% water and up to 7% carbohydrates. Watermelon has several essential micronutrients and vitamins.

Health Benefits of Watermelon
-Heart health:
Watermelon contains high levels of lycopene, which is very effective in protecting cells from damage and lowering the risk of heart disease. Watermelon extracts help obese adults reduce hypertension and lower blood pressure. Watermelon fruit is also high in potassium. Potassium is an essential component of cells and body fluids that aid in the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure. As a result, it protects against stroke and coronary heart disease.

-Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant support:
Anti-inflammatory foods can help with overall immunity and health. Watermelon is an anti-inflammatory fruit due to the presence of lycopene. Lycopene works as an antioxidant to neutralize free radicals as well as an inhibitor of various inflammatory processes. It is also high in vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin C, and manganese. Consumption of vitamin-C-rich foods aids the body in developing resistance to infectious agents. Watermelon is a good source of vitamin A, which is a natural antioxidant. It is a necessary vitamin for vision and immunity.

-Hydration and digestion:
Watermelons are an excellent example of a food that can aid in hydration and digestion. Watermelons are nature’s gift for quenching summer thirst because they are high in electrolytes and water content. Watermelon contains fiber, which promotes a healthy digestive tract and helps you stay regular.
-Cancer prevention: Watermelons, like other fruits and vegetables, may help reduce the risk of cancer due to their antioxidant properties. Lycopene, according to the National Cancer Institute, aids in the reduction of prostate cancer cell proliferation. Natural fruits high in vitamin A are known to protect against lung and oral cavity cancers.

-You can eat watermelon rind and seeds: Most people throw away the watermelon rind and seeds. The rind not only contains plenty of health-promoting and blood-building chlorophyll, but it also contains more of the important amino acid citrulline than the flesh. Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid that was discovered in watermelon. Many people prefer seedless watermelons, but black watermelon seeds are nutritious and edible. They are high in iron, zinc, protein, and fiber.

Watermelons are a great source of important nutrients and have a high concentration of nutrients for human consumption. It also contains a variety of medicinal components. As a result, it would be more effective in healthcare management. Watermelon rind and seed are also high in important amino acids and minerals. Watermelon and its products have exceptional qualities that warrant their use for health benefits.